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The expression of these genes in the pectoral fin, and their role in creating a second AER, appears to be a unique adaptation possessed by batoids. The researchers are now further exploring the genetic mechanisms involved in the development of batoid fins, as well as other distinctive fin shapes in other species. More from Biology and Medical. Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more. Your feedback will go directly to Science X editors. Thank you for taking your time to send in your valued opinion to Science X editors.

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Skates & Rays

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Explore further. More information: Tetsuya Nakamura et al. Molecular mechanisms underlying the exceptional adaptations of batoid fins, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences DOI: Provided by University of Chicago Medical Center. This document is subject to copyright.

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Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Daily rainfall over Sumatra linked to larger atmospheric phenomenon Sep 20, Sep 20, Relevant PhysicsForums posts Autopiotherapy, etc. Sep 19, What does a good memory mean about the brain? Sep 17, Do ESCs produce a large array of proteins? Ointments and the bloodstream query Sep 16, How is Cdc6 only synthesized at G1? Sep 09, Related Stories. Key genetic event underlying fin-to-limb evolution Aug 18, Nov 19, Jan 21, The effects she saw, such as a slightly harder jaws and softer fins, are small, Bigmani admits.

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These materials often are capable of eating away at some minerals such as carbonate, or preventing their formation in the first place. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water, it triggers chemical reactions that create carbonic acid.

Get your skates on! Shark relatives deliver surprises

These solutions are also referred to as basic — as in the opposite of acidic — and have a pH above 7. Atoms are made up of a dense nucleus that contains positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons.

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The nucleus is orbited by a cloud of negatively charged electrons. The scientists who study them are known as biologists. It is also found in bone mineral and teeth, and can play a role in the movement of certain substances into and out of cells. Its formula is CaCO 3 meaning it contains one calcium atom, one carbon atom and three oxygen atoms. Carbon dioxide also is released when organic matter burns including fossil fuels like oil or gas.

Plants convert carbon dioxide into oxygen during photosynthesis, the process they use to make their own food. In certain primitive fishes, such as sharks and rays, cartilage provides an internal structure — or skeleton — for their bodies. A special kind of X-ray scanning technology that produces cross-sectional views of the inside of a bone or body.

Examples include hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, lithium and uranium. As an adjective, the term would be embryonic — and could be used to refer to the early stages or life of a system or technology. A habitat can be home to thousands of different species. As a gas, it is colorless, odorless and highly flammable. Molecules can be made of single types of atoms or of different types. For example, the oxygen in the air is made of two oxygen atoms O 2 , but water is made of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom H 2 O.

All animals and many microorganisms need oxygen to fuel their growth and metabolism. A pH of 7 is perfectly neutral. Acids have a pH lower than 7; the farther from 7, the stronger the acid. Alkaline solutions, called bases, have a pH higher than 7; again, the farther above 7, the stronger the base.


It is a component of bones, hard white tooth enamel, and some minerals such as apatite. Its scientific symbol is P. It is an important part of many chemicals and structures that are found in cells, such as membranes, and DNA.

When a computer brings these images together, they can provide a motion picture of something or can offer a three-dimensional view through the target. Such systems are often used to see inside the human body or solid objects without breaching their surface. Unlike lakes and streams, seawater — or ocean water — is salty. Cells within a tissue work as a unit to perform a particular function in living organisms.

Different organs of the human body, for instance, often are made from many different types of tissues. This group includes amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals and most fish. Di Santo. Ocean acidification and warming affect skeletal mineralization in a marine fish. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. Climate change is underway, and affecting the entire planet. People throughout Central Europe fought to stay hydrated during the unexpectedly hot weather they encountered last month.

With climate change, people may have to depend on grains such as the sorghum shown here that are not now commonly found on our plates. Skip to main content. Lab Scientists Say Analyze This! Technically Fiction. Gravity Waves.

Skates & Rays | Calvert Marine Museum, MD - Official Website

Current Issue. Animals Oceans Climate Change Chronicles. Ocean acidification may ground swimming skates. In warmer and more acidic seas, little skates develop stronger jaws but weaker fins. Bethany Brookshire. Feb 28, — am EST. Steenblik Hwang.