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For instance, given an estimated average global life expectancy of The severity of poverty in Nigeria's rural areas is particularly heart-rending. The negative impacts of HIV on agricultural outputs and sales have also been tracked in Uganda and Malawi Nyong, This scenario is not so different in Nigeria.

Staff turnover is so high that much of the investment in human capacity building by agricultural projects, including overseas training, may have been wasted. Deressa reports that most of the problems or constraints encountered by farmers in adaptation to climate change are associated with poverty. This is because poor and hungry farmers would naturally divert their limited farm income towards the basic necessities like feeding and medication rather than ploughing them into climate change adaptation measures.

Enete and Achike reported, in southeast Nigeria, that undercapitalized urban farmers did not adopt more efficient inputs in the right quantity and were generally not innovative in their farming practices essentially because of poverty. Agricultural research has been shown to be one of the most effective forms of public investment Hazell and Haddad ; Fan ; Fan and Rao, Allocations for agricultural research as a percentage of the total budget for agriculture for the periods , , and were The National Bureau of Statistics for instance estimates that 70 per cent of fruits and vegetables produced in the country are wasted, basically due to poor infrastructure and inadequate research efforts in preservation techniques Atser, Private-sector activity in agricultural research in Nigeria is also negligible, as is the case throughout most of Sub-Saharan Africa Mogues, et al.

DAS oversees the funding and management of 15 national agricultural research institutes located throughout the country. Those institutes are tasked with generating improved agricultural technologies for use by farmers and agro-allied industries.

However, DAS funding of agricultural science research and technology have been generally sluggish as governments and even the private sector are yet to accord it the needed priority attention. Bientema and Ayoola assessed agricultural research capacity in Nigeria and found that it is highly dispersed such that the country currently does not have a well-defined national agricultural research strategy. In addition, the funding of agricultural research from the federal government budget, which is always the main and now virtually the sole source of funds, has been in regression since the collapse of oil prices in the early s Agbamu, ; FAO and Nigeria House Committee on Agriculture, Although the 10 percent target endorsed in Maputo may not be appropriate for every country since the importance of agriculture in the overall economy varies between countries, it serves as a reminder that public resource allocation to agriculture in Nigeria is very low when judged against the most widely cited international benchmark Mogues, et al.

Between and , the aggregate federal spending budget averaged billion naira per year. Of that amount, the agriculture sector budget constituted a very small share, averaging only The share of actual expenditure that went to agriculture was similar to the share budgeted. Between and , actual federal spending averaged billion naira per year, of which Table 1. Such a funding pattern clearly does not befit the sector that is acknowledged to be a prime driver of growth and poverty reduction in the country.

Figure 1. In contrast, agricultural research in industrialized countries has been relatively well funded with some of the work being led by the private sector and more connections to the grassroots. For instance in Japan, there are 13 national research institutes that have networks with prefectural research institutes and experiment stations through six national agricultural experiment stations.

Japan operates at the prefecture state level bottom-top management system in which decisions on research and linkage activities are taken at prefecture level without the direct involvement of national officers. The research stations have more direct links with farmers at the local level. In some African countries like Tanzania, coordination of the three national research institutes fall under the authority of the Division of Research and Training and have substations in the 47 provinces.

The Farming Systems Research—Extension Programme — also under the Division of Research and Training — is managed by zonal directors and implemented at provincial level through Liaison Offices Agbamu, This means that all decisions on the funding, direction and implementation of research activities are taken from Abuja Agbamu, The consequence of this is not only over-centralization of agricultural administration, but also that those involved are hardly in touch with the reality on ground.

Fighting the Climate Crises

As a result, a much greater range of new technologies is available for production systems and crops of interest to developed countries than for smallholder production systems in Nigeria. This could pose serious challenge for agricultural adaptation to climate change. For instance, the farmers interviewed during the DelPHE research indicated that soil fertility has been on the decline for the past ten years.

However, a FAO report shows that inorganic fertilizer consumption in sub-Saharan Africa is very low despite the declining soil fertility. Total regional consumption is only 1. In addition, this can also hamper the development of new agricultural technologies like new crop and animal varieties for climate change adaptation. In addition, the use of firewood as cooking energy source has recently gained prominence, because of the high cost and non-availability of other cleaner sources such as natural gas.

These activities increase the concentrations of greenhouse gases GHGs in the atmosphere trapping heat and causing global warming, climate change and sea level rise Medugu, Currently, forest covers approximately million ha almost 17 percent of land area. The current annual deforestation rate is, however, 0.

Garba, noted that one of the major causes of poverty is destruction of natural resources, leading to environmental degradation, high temperature, drought and consequently reduced productivity. Three main categories of irrigation development exist in Nigeria today, namely public irrigation schemes, which are systems under government control formal irrigation ; the farmer-owned and operated irrigation schemes informal irrigation and residual flood plains fadama irrigated scheme.

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Even with the present irrigation efforts, Madu, et al noted that Nigeria has not developed irrigation to the same extent as other developing nations, particularly in Asia. Only about a million hectare is currently irrigated in Nigeria. In contrast, India, which has about 3.

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Unfortunately agricultural practice in Nigeria is still predominantly rain-fed and therefore particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change as noted before FAO, ; Medugu, and IFAD, The consequences are that the increasing frequency and severity of droughts are likely to cause: crop failure; high and rising food prices; distress sale of animals; de-capitalization, impoverishment, hunger, and eventually famine. Households will probably try to cope with their cash and food shortage by cutting and selling more firewood thereby exacerbating land degradation and accelerating the onset of desertification, and by moving temporarily or permanently to more favoured areas.

In line with this projection, Medugu stated that Nigeria is one of the countries expected to be most affected by the impacts of climate change through sea level rise along her coast line, intensified desertification, erosion and flooding disasters and general land degradation. Among most African peoples, farmland is not owned but held in trust by the present generation on behalf of their future descendants. It could be held by individual families, extended families or entire village communities and then fragmented to individual farmers, who only enjoy user rights.

Outright purchase of farmland is not common, but rental for a period of time could be possible Nweke and Enete SAP contained agricultural specific reforms such as i end to marketing monopolies; ii reduced parastatal involvement in the supply of inputs, marketing and processing; iii reduced subsidies, price controls and impediments to private sector activities; iv no restraints on foreign trade; and v promotion of the private sector.

Because of the reduction of obstacles to international trade, trade liberalization was expected to generate changes in the patterns and structure of production at all levels - including smallholder-farming systems in Nigeria. This is because the rapid growth of market development consequent upon trade liberalization should be accompanied by changes in the patterns of production and natural resource usage. However, one consequence of the liberal trade policy has been an influx of cheap imports of products such as textiles, sugar, vegetable oil, wheat, rice, etc.

Challenges of Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Change in Nigeria: a Synthesis from the Literature

In addition, the prices of most agricultural export commodities have been falling in recent times as a result of decline in international prices Bigman Despite the large domestic market, only a small proportion of producers have been able to develop into sizeable businesses able to compete internationally, as shown by the long-term decline in non-oil exports. Total factor productivity TFP growth has been low and appears to have fallen consistently between and Increases in productivity per capita have been negligible. In agriculture, yields have been falling and, in manufacturing, there is considerable unused capacity World Bank, For instance, the World Bank reported that farmers in developing countries cannot compete with highly subsidized farmers in industrialized countries who can afford to sell crops below production costs.

This is, because, agriculture is the major, sometimes the only source of export earnings for many poor countries. These countries want to sell their goods in the United States and European markets, but often have a hard time doing so because of trade barriers, like tariffs. For example, while the Senegal basin produces nerica at about 7. The high cost of production tends to make Nigerian exports uncompetitive.

The result of a study conducted by Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa across African countries showed that lack of access to credit or saving is one of the major problems encountered by farmers in adapting to the effects of climate change Dewit, According to Deressa , the analysis of barriers to adaptation to climate change in the Nile basin of Ethiopia indicates that lack of money is a major constraint to adaptation by farmers.

This has generally been lacking in Nigeria as successive governments most often make a u-turn on policies put in place by predecessors. Atser stated that weak infrastructure and inconsistency in government policies have always been major snags in the development of agriculture in Nigeria. The World Bank reported the existence of inadequate storage facilities and dilapidating agricultural infrastructure in Nigeria. In addition, the only small portions of the national grain storage systems that were constructed in the country are not properly managed and the entire network is far from being completed Mogues, et al.

The shortage of storage facilities poses serious threats to farmers in food preservation, most especially during harvest periods. As a result, most crop farmers are often in a rush to send farm produce to market immediately after harvest, not minding the associated low prices. This could act as a disincentive to investment in agriculture and hence portend serious threats to agricultural adaptation to climate change. As part of the structural adjustment process, governments have focused on the core facilitation roles of Ministries of Agriculture MOA.

Despite the clarion call from several quarters for power to be decentralized from the centre in Nigeria, the federal government has continued to monopolise power, with the result that state and local government structures have suffered progressively reduced budgets, resulting in cuts of staff and service delivery capacity, and in most cases the private sector has not yet filled the vacuum. Mogues, et. For instance, at the State level, agricultural budget execution is very low and varied, in Imo and Enugu states, the annual agriculture share of capital budget averaged about 2.

At the local government level, the study of Nwoko and Nege using Odukpani Local Government Area of Cross River State constituted an extreme case in which agricultural spending was very low, averaging only 0. This trend clearly revealed centralised nature of the national agriculture spending and related policies at the federal level at the disadvantage of agricultural activities at the State and local government levels in the country.

Almost everything one hears about agriculture in the country is dominated by the federal ministry of agriculture. The need for better information and enhanced human capital has also increased, as production systems have become more integrated with regional, national and international market systems. Many farmers in developed countries now have a much better understanding of the nature of the demand that they are responding to - in terms of its implications for varieties, timing, and packaging and permitted chemicals.

As a result, they have progressively modified their production practices and their portfolio of products in response to changing patterns of demand. This knowledge-based approach has not yet been adopted in Nigeria. The report of IFAD confirmed that the poor state of the country's education has also had its toll on the poor people, majority of who are farmers in rural areas.

In addition, they are faced with limited social services and infrastructure. Nyong noted that low flexibility of Nigerian farmers to allow for substitution in production practices, especially for export crops, cereals and other agriculture is a major limiting factor which results from low human capital, technological capacities, credit market access and infrastructure. Garba summed up this issue when he said thatone of the major causes of poverty in Nigeria is low endowment of human capital.

Unfortunately, the emerging alternative sources of agricultural information like the internet are yet to expand to the rural areas, and may in fact not be able to, because of language and cost barriers. It is expected that farmers' organizations and the private sector will take the lead towards increased extension, training activities, internet connectivity, technical and market information provision.

In Nigeria, agricultural research is carried out predominantly in public sector institutions FAO andAgbamu, while private-sector activity in agricultural research is negligible, as is the case throughout most of Sub-Saharan Africa World Bank, African culture generally discriminates a lot against women especially in area of inheritance land. For instance, in places where women do not own or inherit land; difficulties have always been experienced in their expanding farming activities and reaping the benefits of innovation Anyanwu and Agu, An FAO survey showed that female farmers receive only seven percent of all agricultural extension services world-wide and that only 11 percent of extension agents are women.

For instance, the ownership structure of research institutes could be decentralized to the lower tiers of government where the farmers at the local levels can actively benefit. There is therefore the need for adequate provision of irrigation and drainage infrastructures which could be regarded as crucial for climate change adaptation. A better educated farmer would for instance be able to absorb new information faster. In addition, efforts need to be made towards tackling the dilapidated infrastructure in the country.

It is therefore advocated that indigenous knowledge and practices should be integrated into formal climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. This may help them take advantage of the internet.

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Both government and the private sector, which should drive the agricultural sector through consistent policies, robust funding and infrastructure development, have failed to accord agricultural adaptation the priority it deserves. Moreover, the anticipated benefit from trade liberalization has failed to trickle down to the African farmer.

In addition, the farmers have been slow in changing their farming practices such as bush burning, deforestation, rain-fed agriculture and land tenure systems, and they lack the requisite education, information and training necessary to adapt to climate change. These challenges need urgent attention by the relevant authorities because the problems of climate change are already with us.

Adejuwon J. Adger, W. Adaptation to Climate Change in the Developing World. Progress in Development Studies No. Pp Agbamu, J. Agoumi, A.

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Adaptation and implementation strategies for climatic change. Ajetomobi, J. Ajiboye and H. Anyanwu, A. C and V. C, Agu In Adedoyin, S. F and Aihonsu, J. Apata, T. Professor Wu Xinbo describes Chinas motivations on the world stage. Wendy Cutler speaks on the economic relationship between the United States and China. Professor Xue Lan discusses China's advances in technology. Professor Li Wei adds to the conversation on economic and technology exchange. Elsa Kania leads dicusses managing a technology rivalry between the United States and China.

Professor Wang Jisi leads a discussion looking to the future of U.

Professor Evan Medeiros offers ideas on managing competition going forward. Professor Guan Guihai comments on the future of U. While many divergent views were expressed, there was widespread agreement among the participants that the relationship has been altered from the status quo of the past 40 years—characterized by more cooperation than competition—to a relationship where competition is more prominent.

The participants concluded that, while lessons can be learned from Soviet-U. Moreover, the Cold War was an explicitly ideological struggle in which the Soviet Union sought the overthrow of non-Communist governments and the establishment of a new world order. Most of the participants agreed that the trajectory of U. The volume will illuminate the trajectory of U.

Managing Competition and Assessing the Future of U. Department of State. Uncharted Territory: Exploring the Future of U.