As original sources for his work, he used Szombathys diary and the report to the Academy. Even in those days 40 years after the excavation no further documents seem to have existed. With a view to the details of the position of the finds we see an increase of information from Szombathys diary to the report and later on to and , which perhaps was not based on written documents but on the memory of the excavator Josef Szombathy.
Therefore, it is difficult to examine the authenticity of information by going back to the roots. A similar development could be observed concerning the finding of the Venus of Willendorf although we have much more documents in that case Antl, In , Bayer mentions 19 perforated teeth from beaver, reindeer, cave bear, wolf and wild horse being without any doubt part of a necklace which had been given to one of the dead Bayer, , The expression being without any doubt part of a necklace is an exact translation from the sentence Szombathy used in Paris in ; which had been given to one of the dead is Bayers conclusion.
He regarded the finds from Mladec as disturbed graves. He considered the necklace as a grave good for the young individual. Concerning the position of the teeth, his description differs from that given by Szombathy. According to Bayer, a well preserved skull and a femur was found near site a; the other human bones among them the fragments of a childs skull were scattered in the area b where also the perforated teeth and lots of animal bones had been found Bayer, , Following Szombathy , the artifacts were found between a and b only one meter from a.
The decisive difference between Szombathy and Bayer was that Bayer was convinced the finds had been submitted to postdepositional disturbance. He did not necessarily mean modern distur13 J. Szombathy, , :  dents de Castor et de Renne perces, provenant sans doute dun collier, ; Dans la niche avoisinante, environ 1 metre de distance des trouvailles mentiones en dernier lieu, gisait le crne humain. For Obermaier, this was another reason to doubt the unity of the finds and consequently, the age of the human remains Obermaier, , Bayer argued against it with the state of conservation and the comparison with the Cro-Magnon skull that had been accepted by the congress in Bayer also noticed the illegal excavation of some citizens from Littau in and the unknown extent of loss to the archaeological record.
In contrast to Szombathy, Bayer listed all arguments that could lead to doubt of the diluvial age of the remains and discussed them on the basis of all the documents and the finds. Unlike Szombathy, Bayer did not believe that the position in the highest layer even if it was undisturbed would qualify for dating the assemblage. Szombathy Three years later, Szombathy gives a detailed description of the finds in the Mladec Cave. Even there we cannot find any reference to Jandass excavation in Szombathy describes the finding of skull I and for the first time, informs about bones of reindeer and cattle in the vicinity of the skull.
Concerning the artifacts, Szombathy opposed the interpretation of Bayer, bringing a new description of their distribution within the layer. Twenty-two perforated pendants made of the teeth of ruminants such as bear, wolf, horse, reindeer and beaver. All of them had been perforated near the end of the root and certainly belonged to one or more necklaces; they lay scattered over the whole center of the Hall D Szombathy, , In another place of the same publication: In the center of the chamber we found bones of reindeer and cattle and fragments of a human spinal column, ribs, skulls, pelvis and limbs and an isolated upper jaw, finally bone artifacts and hornstone unevenly spread over an area of about 20 square meters Szombathy, , 6.
The widespread human remains and artifacts between animal bones, Szombathy interprets as remains of cannibalistic rites. As a sort of answer to Bayers suspected damage to the layers by the illegal excavation in , Szombathy now denies against his own entry in the diary a bigger impact to the results of his research in the cave caused by these excavations: The loss of material caused by this operation cannot be very big and certainly can have no influence to the main results of our research Szombathy, , 6.
Conclusion When we try to judge whether the assemblage from Mladec had been deposited like Szombathy found it or not, it is necessary to consider all facts that could have disturbed the original situation. The documents show that the cracks of the bone fragments Szombathy only mentions fragments of a human skull were partly covered with sinter.
If we do not conclude with Szombathy that the fragmentation of the human bones was due to cannibalism, we must think of post-depositional changes that took place as long as the original entrance to the cave was open, perhaps already during the Paleolithic. Another point is the rather shallow position of the majority of the finds. We should be aware of possibly rather long periods without sedimentation. In caves like La Garma in Spain, no sedimentation took place after Paleolithic man had left the cave. If this was also the case in Mladec, bones and artifacts from different periods could have been deposited in the same layer.
The position of the finds could have also been changed by animals coming to the cave. Szombathy describes big rocks hanging from the ceiling. There is much debris in the cave that goes back to former collapses of the ceiling. Together with the rocks, material from the surface of the Plavatisko might have come into the cave. According to Szombathys descriptions of the cave in and , it seems that at least the finds in area a and the centre of D and probably also the ones in area b, were deposited after the big collapse of the ceiling in E, because Szombathy mentions that When the Littau museums society cleared the cave to prepare it for visitors, the floor of the cave was sunk by at least 2 m.
Today it is possible to go directly from E to a which probably is a consequence of the clearing of the cave between and Apart from these considerations, there are many possibilities for modern disturbances. The cave was detected in ; at least a big number of animal bones were brought out of the cave in those days.
We do not know how much this has affected the prehistoric layer where Szombathy found the human remains and the artifacts. From Szombathys description of the cave in , we learn that people even brought out stalagmites from deep inside the cave. Did they only take stalagmites? Would Szombathy have realized 50 year old slight disturbances in plastic loam given the lack of electric light in the cave when he carried out his excavations? In , Szombathy realized that the layers had been disturbed in some parts of the cave between and He got furious witness the details in his diary about these clandestine excavations.
He mentioned that it would not make any sense to continue research in those devastated parts. In front of a scientific audience in , he did not even mention that fact. In , he spoke of minor losses. Due to these rather controversial statements, the original documents are not really helpful. The entries in the diary are rather concise. Facts we would need to elucidate the situation are not mentioned there. On the other hand, Szombathy presents in his publications many details that are not included in the original records. The rib of a reindeer and the piece of stalagmite sintered to the skull is first mentioned in when the unity of the material had to be defended.
Why was it not worth mentioning when he documented his first impressions? The position of the archaeological finds scattered over 20 square meters is first mentioned in when he opposed Bayer who interpreted the perforated teeth as a necklace given to one of the burials. The most detailed description of the Mladec finds was published more than 40 years after the excavations, but there are no written documents except his diary. Even when Bayer wrote his article about the chronological position of the assemblage, he could only refer to the diary, the report to the academy in and the lecture in Paris in So if there were no other documents, did Szombathy really remember every detail or did he only think he would remember?
We can at least observe a slightly selective argument adjusted to the particular purpose that makes us suspicious about the authenticity of his later and very detailed descriptions. Another point is the lack of documentation as far as the position of the finds is concerned. Szombathy described different sites and drew various very accurate plans of the cave but he did not leave any note where the bones and artifacts were exactly found. So today except the skulls we cannot identify the position of the bones and artifacts. Taking all these arguments into account, we have to conclude that we cannot prove an integrated whole within the Mladec material by archaeological means.
Therefore, as a start for this publication every piece has to be regarded as a single find that must be individually dated. The dating of all elements will then prove whether the Mladec assemblage is a real unity or whether only parts of it belong together. References Antl, W. Sitzungsberichte der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften math.
Classe 87, Chapter 1: Szombathys excavations in the Mladec Cave and the first presentations of the results Hoernes, M. Braunschweig: Vieweg, p. Ein Beitrag zur Urgeschichte Mhrens. Neutitschein: Selbstverlag des Verfassers, pp. Berlin Mnchen Wien: Allgemeine Verlagsgesellschaft, pp. Hochstetter Fnfter Bericht der prhistorischen Commission der mathematisch-naturwissenschaftlichen Classe der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften ber die Arbeiten im Jahre Classe 85,  Szombathy, J.
Congrs International danthropologie et darchologie prehistoriques. Compte rendu de la douzime session. Paris: Masson et Cie, pp. Jahrbuch der k. Zentralkommission fr Kunst und historische Denkmler 2, Szombathy, J. Die Eiszeit 2, , Wolny, G. Brnn, p. Introduction The collections of the Anthropological Department still contain a plaster soft-tissue reconstruction which had been produced on the basis of Mladec 1. The object was made by the academic sculptor Friedrich Fahrwickel, presumably in the late s.
A second sculpture, made as early as the beginning of the thirties by the academic sculptor Egon Grenzer, under scientific instructions by the curator Viktor Lebzelter, is apparently missing. However, this sculpture was used as an early element of anthropological showcasing at the Naturhistorisches Museum Wien and forms a major, historically relevant item in the context of correspondence preserved to this day.
The object underscores the motivation of the artists and curators involved as well as the collecting strategies and exhibition policies practiced in the museum during the interwar period. We look into the faces to differentiate human races and their variants1 Plastic reproductions in the form of masks and casts of body parts belonged to the methodological repertoire of early anthropology.
In his first text book, Rudolf Martin made a point of allowing relatively large room" for anthropological methods Martin, , V. In his opinion, the fate" of anthropology depended on technological developments. Accordingly, his work not only included instructions for standardized measurement of humans, but also very comprehensive descriptions of figurative and plastic reproductions as well as soft-tissue reconstructions of human heads and faces based on bone structures. Although viewed by him as feasible with some degree of approximation to reality", he considered the reliability of this method as uncertain, in particular regarding the representation of physiognomic details of the face.
On the other hand, many anatomists and artists were convinced of the efficiency of the plastic reconstruction method in anthropology and forensic medicine.
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Initially, this technique facilitated a physiognomic comparison of historical personages with cranial remains as well as their subsequent identification; later the reverse route was taken by creating portraits based on existing skulls. This gave rise to a more vivid perception of the appearance of early hominids such as the Neandertals or pre historic humans.
Welcker ; and His were the first anatomists to examine the correlations between the skeleton and soft parts of the face in greater detail and to provide evidence on the presence of relevant laws of regularity. Welckers method of craniological diagnosis was based on a graphic reconstruction of the facial contours. This contour drawing was then fitted into the profile outline of the death masks, which permitted examination of the authenticity of cranial remains e.
Toward the end of the 19th century, based on Welckers data, His went even a step further and commissioned a sculptor to produce the first three-dimensional plastic reconstruction of facial features in this case, a cranial cast of Johann Sebastian Bach; Stadtmller, Kollmann and Bchly were the first to apply the reconstruction method to scientific purposes. They believed that this technique could provide an answer to various questions on the origin of Europeans. The sculptures would provide a clue on the race-specific appearance of the face" Stadtmller, , This idea was based on the fundamental assumption of race persisting by inheritance Kollmann and Bchly, , Therefore using a racial skull the idea was to materialize race-specific rather than individual portraits Kollmann and Bchly, , Such a skull should correspond to one of the basic European forms in every detail" and reflect the pure form, without any other admixture Kollmann and Bchly, , Kollmann and Bchlys whole racial reconstruction argument is circular.
They apparently proofed what they already believed in terms of racial purity and facial form. This concept was used until the fifties of the 20th century see, v. Eickstedt, and was also implicit in attempts to reconstruct the Upper Paleolithic Mladec 1 skull. Using a modified technique, the Russian anthropologist Gerasimov was the first to focus on individual physiognomies Ullrich, Starving out a department affects the reputation of the whole museum"2 The Anthropological Collection part of the institutional structure of Anthropologisch-ethnographische Abteilung" covering the disciplines of Ethnography, Prehistory and Anthropology established by Ferdinand v.
Hochstetter in , developed very slowly. Compared to the two other, extraordinarily prosperous disciplines, the collection was at a disadvantage in the late twenties after WW I in particular as far as human resources and space were concerned. The collection was marked by chronic underendowment and, according to Josef Bayer, neglect in an almost irreparable manner3. Between and , no objects were purchased for the Anthropological Collection.
Therefore, the curators of the department, in particular Viktor Lebzelter, developed strategies to halt the stagnation taking place in the upgrading of the collection, particularly in view of the plans for an exhibition hall dedicated to human biology4. In , this first European racial show5 was made accessible to the general public and with it, anthropological knowledge was popularized successfully"6, possibly giving rise to a new tradition7.
Along with other public shows of newly acquired knowledge, the creators used the potential of soft tissue reconstructions and models to disseminate knowledge. Not only because of this programmatic focus on soft tissue typology", but also with the collection in mind and for budgetary reasons, plastic reconstruction played a key role for Viktor Lebzelter 10, who had been in charge of the Anthropological Department since see Weninger, : Indeed, in his view, these reconstructions were of limited benefit to the advancement of science; but they were helpful to exhibit past forms of race to interested laymen Lebzelter, The plastic reproductions could also be delivered in exchange for original skulls and casts of important paleo-anthropological finds or offered for sale.
In the end, trading in these objects not only contributed to stocking up the inventories of the collection but also to improve departmental budgets and enhance international reputation: With such highly professional reconstruction method which obviously became an obsession to Lebzelter the Museum could prepare unique reconstructions of all prehistoric racial types, thereby making our museum world-famous in this field Under his supervision, soft-tissue reconstructions were now manufactured in a proper Department studio.
For , approx. These works included the first soft-tissue reconstruction of the ice age person of Lautsch as well as numerous reconstructions based on human crania from prehistoric as well as historic time periods among others a man of the Neolithic, a man of the Bronze-age, a man from the Bell-Beaker period and a Tasmanian; Lebzelter ; ; a; b. At smaller exhibitions, many of these works were presented as new acquisitions" immediately after their completion.
Viktor Lebzelters attempts to distinguish himself in the general public area of the museum must presumably also be seen in the context of political developments: At the end of December , the Federal Minister of Education called upon subordinate authorities to support the work of the newly installed commissioner of propaganda. In consultation with the Vaterlndische Front and by using certain print media, the aim was to specifically strengthen the awareness of the Austrian people for their homeland and history By disseminating i.
Some of the reconstructions were manufactured by voluntary external artists, e. She ran a studio for scientific and artistic sculpture in Pcs, Hungary, and was a correspondent of the Naturhistorisches Museum in Vienna and other institutions; Engel-Baiersdorf was an enthusiastic sculptor and worked together with experts such as Egon Frhr. Luschan and from the Viennese Institute for Anthropology; most of them were obviously acquired for the realisation of the first permanent exhibition, which opened in Scientific reconstruction[s] of facial types of extinct and prehistoric races Lebzelter, a played a significant role in this regard In consideration of Lebzelters ambitious plans to expand the collection, it is not surprising that in , he set up a proper laboratory Lebzelter, b for these works at the Naturhistorisches Museum, concentrated the reconstruction work within the Anthropological Department and put it under the direction of the new employee Rosa Koller From then, reconstructions were predominantly made by Rosa Koller17 and the sculptor Friedrich Fahrwickel18 e.
The soft-tissue reconstructions of Mladec 1 Numerous attempts were made to illustrate the physiognomy of prehistoric humans by using different technologies like drawings, pictures or busts Trinkaus and Shipman, Most of them were Neandertals, but there was also an interest in reconstructing individuals from more recent time period.
It was probably Schaaffhausen who had not only initiated already in a 3D-reconstruction based on a medieval skull, but also the first sculptor on a Neandertal skull Schmidt, ; see Winkler, Further attempts to reconstruct Neandertals have been made by Boule , v. Eickstedt , the Field Museum N. Most of them were done by scientific artists under the direction of anatomists and paleontologists.
The majority were for museums exhibits e. In contrast to the Neandertal euphoria, the general interest in soft-tissue reconstruction based on skeletal remains of early modern humans was obviously less keen. See Josef Wastl, September 20, At the Naturhistorisches Museum, the first reconstruction using an Upper Paleolithic cranial specimen from the Mladec Caves Mladec 1 , was carried out by sculptor Egon Grenzer in see Figs. In Lebzelters view, both findings represented two quite different racial types Lebzelter, ,  ; by showing successful reconstructions of these specimens, he believed that his view could be strengthened and made plausible to the untrained viewer.
Lebzelter considered the reconstruction of the Lautsch man as faultless, assigned the product without doubt" to the CroMagnon group and identified a physiognomy close to the so-called dalisch" type. In his view, the reconstruction of the Pr edmost man Fig. The soft tissue reconstruction of Mladec 1 in fronwas a more difficult task more dangerous", tal view original sculpture lost , manufactured by sculptor because the fossils featured an unusual combiEgon Grenzer in under the supervision of Viktor Lebzelter copy of a lantern slide, photo archive, Department nation of australiform" and europid" morof Anthropology, Inv.
In his opinion, even the artist would be lost with totally unknown types and left in the dark when creating the lips, the tips and wing region of the nose Lebzelter, , . Despite these problems, Lebzelter was convinced of both reconstructions and immediately used them in the exhibition hall as a topical illustrative material. It is important to know that the differences which Lebzelter noted between the Mladec and Pr edmost specimen were largely based on the sex difference between them; it was not recognized until later that Mladec 1 is most probably a female.
Below the constitutional types modeled by Erna v. Engel-Baiersdorf22, the figure shows the two early-diluvial race types from Moravia made by Egon Grenzer. At the same time Lebzelter published these works in scientific journals. This strategy was used as a means to push the marketing of the objects which had already proved a rather lucrative commercial enterprise elsewhere23 at the Museum in Vienna. In a report to the Federal Ministry in , Lebzelter noted that the effect the exhibits render in the German museums  is largely based on the plentiful use of plaster casts and models.
In Berlin, a Gipsformerei a lab where plaster casts were made was installed, which developed into a prosperous business. By exchanging the casts against originals, German museums could often enrich their collections in an inexpensive manner At a time of financial bottlenecks and exceptional economic need, this strategy seemed an excellent method of choice. Therefore, and as a Fig. Below are the reconproductions, in particular the Mladec 1 reconstructions of the early Upper Palaeolithic specimens Mlastruction, to many European and non-European dec 1 and Predmost copy from the inventory record of the institutions among others to the Danish anthroAbgusammlung pological committee25, the Museo Nacional de Arqueologa in Mexico26 and the Greek Embassy27 in exchange for ten recent skulls or copies of fossils.
According to the practice of the Louvre in Paris28, Lebzelter also turned to the association. The agreed price was 40, S; this was about half of the monthly budget for the Anthropological Department approx. The artists agreed to this procedure and took part in the profit. The second reconstruction made on the basis of the skull of Mladec 1 was carried out by Friedrich Fahrwickel, presumably in Inv.
According to Josef Wastl, who Fig. Abgusammlung heading the Department Lebzel ter died in , several of the soft tissue reconstructions among them the reconstructions of Mladec and Predmost were made by non-Aryans and had to be redone by Aryans Erna v. Engel-Baiersdorf was most probably Jewish; Egon Grenzer, too Fahrwickel's work differs substantially from the reconstruction made by Grenzer, both as far as the physiognomy and execution technique are concerned.
Lacking a protocol or a publication of this work, it is difficult to justify the reproduction from the sculptors or supervisors point of view. While Grenzers reconstruction seems to be rather soft and close to the given bony structures in spite of basically wrong gender allocation Fahrwickel had subjectively lent much broader artistic scope to his interpretation. Fahrwickel reinforced a relatively less prominent supra-orbital region by attaching thick eyebrows; the alveolar prognatism was concealed" by attaching a beard in a way for the vertical shaping to approach a straight line; to a certain degree, this reconstruction suggests ideological motives.
According to recent research, this work has never been presented in the general public area of the Naturhistorisches Museum. Engel-Baiersdorf, December 22, NHM Vienna, Department of Anthropology, correspondence folder , ; moreover, a request for the Predmost reconstruction in was defeated by Wastl, since it was produced by a Jewish sculptor; see Josef Wastl to the Reich governor of the district of Oberdonau, May 14, Epilogue Soft tissue reconstructions played a key role in the collection and exhibition policies of the Naturhistorisches Museum in the late twenties and early thirties of the past century.
The effort that was made specifically by Viktor Lebzelter, to build a complete, scientifically accurate record of all the peoples that have ever lived on its ancient soil, has been quoted by the international community Thone, , To Lebzelter, these reconstructions were considered racial portraits rather than being of high scientific value. In his opinion, a vivid plastic reconstruction can transmit all an expert can read only by laborious study from the analysis of cranial features Lebzelter, a.
In addition, these objects would also convey political messages to the public in which the staff of the Anthropological Department would in a way begin to take part from the early thirties. Moreover, he expected to increase the inventories by selling or exchanging these novel products.
The Vienna sculptors and scientists developed an improved way to carve likenesses of prehistoric predecessors: According to Thone , 42 , they compared skulls critically with skulls of peoples existing in the world today, to find what modern racial types they most resemble  and than they turned to measurements made on living possessors of these modern counterparts of ancient skulls to get an idea on the thickness of the soft parts, which should be reconstructed.
As Viktor Lebzelter kept intervening in the production of these sculptures, they not only bear the artists, but also his own, trademark. He basically conceded artistic freedom to the sculptors, checked and discussed their work, suggested changes or consulted other experts who had more concrete ideas about the physiognomy in question.
Nevertheless, some of these works were also subjected to heavy criticism Today, both of the early reconstructions introduced here are of primarily historical relevance. The fact that in the thirties of the past century, the Mladec 1 cranium excavated in and serving as the bony structure for the reconstruction was still assigned to a male individual, dramatically underscores the fact that these reproductions only reflect instantaneous images of the status quo.
Beyond that, however and given the fact that both Mladec 1 soft tissue reconstructions were materialized within a few years from each other, and within the same institution they also demonstrate that each reproduction is not only influenced by a variable final state of knowledge, but also by subjective judgment and by the ideological background of the sculptor. Acknowledgement I thank Erik Trinkaus for critical comments on an earlier version of the manuscript and Wolfgang Reichmann for technical assistance.
Translation by Michaela Zwlfer. References Boule, M. Paris: Masson et Cie Eickstedt, E. Die Umschau 28, Eickstedt, E. Museum and Art Notes 1, Engel-Baiersdorf, March 9, Teschler-Nicola Gerasimov, M. Schdel erhalten ihr Antlitz zurck Wissenschaft auf neuen Wegen.
Gtersloh: C. Bertelsmann His, W. Leipzig: F. Vogel Kollmann, J. Archiv fr Anthropologie 25, Kurth, G. Tackenberg, Ed. Der Neandertaler und seine Umwelt. Bonn: Habelt, pp. Mitteilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft 62,  Lebzelter, V. Mitteilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft 65,  Lebzelter, V. Mitteilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft 65,  Lebzelter, V. The Illustrated London News April , p. Jena: Gustav Fischer Matiegka, J. Anthropologischer Anzeiger 7, N. Science News Letter 15 , Schmidt, E. Globus 74, Schwartz, J.
Zeitschrift fr Morphologie und Anthropologie 22, Thone, F. Science News Letter 30 , Trinkaus E. London: Jonathan Cape, pp. Zeitschrift fr Morphologie und Anthropologie 49, Welcker, H. Braunschweig: Vieweg Welcker, H. Sendschreiben an Geh. Rath Dr. Archiv fr Anthropologie 15, Weninger, J. Anthropologischer Anzeiger 13, Winkler, E. Knumann, Ed. Handbuch der vergleichenden Biologie des Menschen. Stuttgart New York: Gustav Fischer, pp.
Previously known as Bockova dra in Czech or Frst JohannsHhle in German, this multi-floor karstic system, with mean elevations around m a. Typically, the limestone is penetrated by vertical fissures and chimneys interconnecting the horizontal cavities and providing more or less direct access to the surface. In order to address the depositional context of the human fossils, two lines of evidence are combined: the original records of early excavators and witnesses, and the revision of the actual topographic situation inside the cave.
Nevertheless, several issues remain unresolved, not the least of which is the question of whether the Upper Paleolithic people frequented the interior of the cave, or whether their remains fell in through the chimneys. Furthermore, there are several questions related to: the original entrance, the hearths, and finally, possible rock art. The interpretation of Upper Paleolithic burials is widely influenced by both the personal experience of the excavators and available analogies.
Naturally, these viewpoints have altered with the advancement of European Paleolithic research during the last century. As the majority of Upper Paleolithic burials discovered earlier in caves of Italy and France e. Elsewhere in Europe, however, a more specialized type the funeral cave was repeatedly encountered, as at Cussac where the human skeletal Table 1.
Mladec Entrance Ib. Dome of the Dead. Excavators ? In , a funeral cave was discovered in the Zlaty kun Hill at Koneprusy in the Bohemian karst Prosek et al. The situation after Site Mladec Ia Although the existence of underground cavities within the Tresn Hill was known since earliest times and reflected in local tales, the actual entrance to the cave was not opened until either , as reported by G. Wolny or report by J. Sommer by a limestone quarry in the northern slope of the hill.
In the first hall behind this entrance later labeled A by Szombathy , skeletal remains of a large giant individual were found. The following reports by local witnesses were later recorded by Szombathy , 4. Walloch: In the first small hall on the right lay the skeleton of a giant with arms stretched out. He had teeth larger than a thumb. The priest of Mierotein came, took the bones with him and had them buried in a funeral. Raschendorfer: His skull was so big that a man could place it wholly over his head. In addition, Knies referred to a carved bone spear-point associated with the body, and Skutil , who explored the entrance part of the cave, reported the discovery of two lithic artifacts.
The skeletal remains were presumably reburied in the nearby village of Merotn, possibly near the church; there is no report of a more precise location of the burial. Since that time, however, a new and larger cemetery was built near Merotn and consequently, there is no hope of rediscovering this skeleton. Following the report, the skeleton may have belonged to a large human or to a carnivore, presumably a bear. We have no evidence of the stratigraphy, but the finds were likely right on the surface.
If we judge from the artifacts both the undocumented bone point and the two lithics drawn by Skutil could possibly be Aurignacian. Actual revision of this part of the cave shows that an almost vertical natural corridor several meters long the Entrance chimney opens towards the surface behind the modern entrance to the right.
Even if passage through this chimney is difficult, it is accessible to humans. A date of is inscribed on the rock wall in the middle of this pathway. If it was open during the past as it is today, the skeleton and the artifacts could have passed through during any time period. In addition, the Entrance chimney could have enabled passage further inside the cave system.
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Activities after Site Mladec Ib Situation and stratigraphy Following the entrance to the cave, several halls are separated by massive limestone pillars, labeled BE by Szombathy Figs. Today, after removal of a large portion of the sediments, these parts of the cave form a unique, oblong space called The Dome of the Dead.
During the 19th century, however, it was filled with sediments and large limestone blocks, and sealed with calcite layers. Thus, orientation in this part of the cave was considerably more difficult. After discovery, this part of the cave was vulnerable to exploitation of the faunal remains and stalactites up until , when Joseph Szombathy first began scientific exploration of the cave.
Areas of his excavation are indicated on his map Fig. Historical plan of the caves by J. Szombathy , showing his numeration of the halls AE and findspots ae. Scale: Actual plan of the caves, showing the position of the sites Ia, Ib and II. The square indicates the analyzed area in the Hall of the Dead site Ib. The points indicate the chimneys.
Szombathy did not mention the chimney or the massive cone of underlying deposits in the northeastern part of the hall; instead, he represents this area as a solid rock on his plan, presumably because of the large boulders accumulated on the top of the cone.
According to our recent reconstruction of the surface Fig. It was about 3 m deep and showed the following stratigraphy Fig. Below this was a layer of calcite with charcoal and a series of finely bedded loam interspersed with concentrations of microfaunal remains, reaching a depth of 3 m. Additional human fossils and artifacts were later found in a similar situation in locus b, and also in other parts of the hall de during the excavations. They were spread over an area altogether not surpassing 20 m2.
Even though Szombathy excavated quite deep, no finds were located beneath a depth of cm. This observation is important, because in disputes with K. Maska about the authenticity and Pleistocene age of his finds, Szombathy would certainly have favored a lower depth. The exploration of this hall was continued after by J. Knies Knies was the first to describe the large, 6 m high debris cone in the northeastern part of the Dome between Halls D and E.
In this area, he mostly found Pleistocene remains, including a reindeer skeleton. In his letter to K. Maska dated April, , Knies mentioned an almost complete reindeer skeleton, only the skull is fragmented. The extremities perfectly preserved! The animal died in the rock fissure into which it fell. It is hard to say what he meant by the fissure.
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But based on the taphonomy of this skeleton, the preservation of the bones in several anatomically ordered clusters, and the two observed types of coloration, Knies tried to reconstruct the depositional process. He concluded that the animal would have fallen in through the chimney, and individual parts of the body would have been gradually redeposited together with the gravel in two basic directions. Since , the sediments have been disturbed by large-scale earth removals in order to accommodate the arrangement of stairs and paved floors for tourists visiting the cave.
Another important discovery of human fossils was made by Frst and Smycka as late as , but there are not enough contextual data with which to evaluate the finds. Satisfaction Guaranteed! Book is in Used-Good condition.
Pages and cover are clean and intact. Used items may not include supplementary materials such as CDs or access codes. May show signs of minor shelf wear and contain limited notes and highlighting. More information about this seller Contact this seller 4. Published by Springer, U. About this Item: Springer, U. Condition: Very Good. More information about this seller Contact this seller 5. More information about this seller Contact this seller 6. Kurt W. Alt editor , Friedrich W. Published by Springer Vienna , Berlin About this Item: Springer Vienna , Berlin, More information about this seller Contact this seller 7.
Alt Editor , Friedrich W. More information about this seller Contact this seller 8. Published by Wien, Springer, About this Item: Wien, Springer, The Mladec Caves and their Remains. XVI, p. Imperfect copy due to slightly bumped cover, apart from this in very good condition. Seller Inventory DB. More information about this seller Contact this seller 9. There are several mi- cro-incisions on the fragment in Fig.
Scores of other fragments without macroscopic traces of processing are stored in Brno and Olomouc. On the reindeer metacarpal fragment, Reg. Both are made of metacarpals of a large deer, perhaps of Megaceros deter- mined by L. The larger of the two Fig.
On the smaller artifact Fig. Both awls show marked traces of lateral scraping and also, distally on the surface. As documented by the fragments connected by sinter Plate III. On three pieces, one can see complete biconical drill holes in the epiphyses Reg. The drill hole in Fig. Other alterations consist of deepening the natural reductions below the epiphyses Fig. In view of the missing distal parts, one cannot determine their function.
Only two some- what different but unfortunately lost perforated pieces of the old Litovel collection Plate III. A small irregular hole is visible only on one side, 2—3 mm in diameter, probably not artificial. In contrast to the data given by Szombathy , Tafel 2, Abb. Special finds 1. The authen- ticity of this modification is questionable. Posterior part of an aurochs skull, after Szombathy, with traces of hammering Szombathy, , Tafel 2, Abb. Not found in the NHM collections. Re-examining the osteological material from excavations carried out between —, we found minor but very dense striations resembling, at first sight, traces of processing.
Detailed microscopic examination revealed that the striae have the same intensity over differently eroded parts of the bone surface. The striae mostly appear on the pelvic bones, and rarely on those of other animals. The most intense striations occur on one calcaneus of a Bos or Bison, however, they appear on the eroded surface Plate IX. Besides this, some of the objects ivory point, Reg. Praslov, are produced by the vibration of the knife-edge during cleaning of the specimen. Lithic industry 1. Non-retouched bladelet Fig. Burin spall with distal end utilized Fig. Elongate flake of core crest Fig.
Irregular blade Fig.
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Oliva 5. Natural fragment of erratic flint with some local trimming on the edge Fig. Trimmed pebble pre-core, Plate IX. Pebble with two flake scars Plate IX. Pebble with flat flake scar Plate IX. L , Museum Olomouc: length mm, thick- ness 48 mm, limestone. Hammerstone Plate IX. L , Museum Olomouc: length 44 mm, thickness 32 mm, both ends are heavily worn, quartz. Pebble-hammerstone Plate IX. L , Museum Olomouc: length 98 mm, thickness 55 mm, traces of hammering at the end, at places ochre-colored stains, limestone. Skutil, , Table 6, left.
Pebble-hammerstone, allegedly Museum Olomouc: dimensions x 93 x 33 mm, battered along its circumference, quartzite. Pebble-hammerstone, allegedly Museum Olomouc: dimensions 96 x 87 x 41 mm, its circumfer- ence is battered, quartzite. Two small chert flakes, lost. Core artifact, lost, dimensions 75 x 20 x 18 mm, flint or chert. Uni-directional blade core Fig. L , Museum Olomouc: dimensions 70 x 50 x 39 mm, blackish silicite flint? Retouched blade, MZM Brno: length 41 mm, chert. Loc: cave interior coll. Retouched blade fragment with a notch on opposite edge Fig. Thick nose-shaped scraper Fig.
Hahn, , : length 28 mm, flint or chert. Loc: Hallway A.
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Skutil, , 32, Fig. Small core or polyhedric burin Fig. In Szombathy's final report, however, the rope is no longer mentioned, since it became one of the reasons for doubting the Paleolithic age of the human remains Obermaier, Nevertheless, this could obviously be the earliest record of Paleolithic? It should be pointed out that remains of a rope were also found at Lascaux Leroi-Gourhan and Allain, So far, only a preliminary note has been published on these observations Oliva, ; Double line, irregularly interrupted in places, straight, 22 cm long.
Site: the northern wall of the rock column in the middle of Dome D, on the right of the vertical erosion furrow in the wall Plate X. Double line, blurred in places, converging towards the lower ends, not straight, widened in places, 18 cm long. Site: as above, to the left of the vertical furrow Plate X. A pair of irregular lines, uneven in length, max. Site: not quite 2 m east of No. A row of dots, double on the left distance between the rows about 5—7 cm , simple on the right, made with pale brick-colored ochre pigment, length 19 cm. In contrast to the preceding marks, the dots are on the very rock surface.
Site: 35 cm to the right of No. Approximately six irregular, not blurred small dots, rather only irregular blotches of the pig- ment. Site: min. An irregular arrow-shaped figure pointing obliquely downwards, on the rock surface easily erased , length 16 cm. Site: on the north side of the column with marks 4 to 6, about 2 m above the stairs, approximately 15 cm lower than No.
Some unclear parallel vertical lines, approximately 15 cm long, apparently consolidated in the flowstone. Site: 3. Interrupted horizontal line about 2—3 cm broad and about 2. Below the line, there are indistinct blurred stains of the same rusty color. Site: 10 m east of the preceding group, about 3. Almost vertical line, 1 to 1. Several blurred ochre blotches, probably of natural origin, in a smooth stalagmite flowstone.
Several indistinct, vertically blurred ochre blotches. A sample of the ochre pigment taken from mark No. Oliva it is even probable that not all of them originated in the same epoch. Above all, the marks applied to the flowstone are the most un- certain. Marks Nos. Illuminated by an ultraviolet lamp, these old sinters appear black, whereas the recent active flowstones and the subrecent inscriptions emit a clear glow.
All marks, the same as the cave loam, appeared black. Even the symmetrical location of marks 1 and 2 is conspicuous: they are situated on either side of the vertical erosion furrow, with which they might form a semantic unit. Comparisons The only culturally significant lithic artifact is the Aurignacian nose-shaped scraper found in the en- trance area. The most striking thing about the other lithics is that in spite of their modest occurrence and the variety of raw materials, they comprise specimens from all production phases of the chipped industry, i.
The isolated occurrence of the lithic industries and the variety of raw materials used Mora- vian Jurassic chert for rough cores, erratic flint for flakes and tools , however, suggest that they were not manufactured locally. It appears as though this is a group of artifacts randomly brought together, without functional relations. The disproportionately large number of hammerstones seems to sup- port the viability of the above conclusion. On the other hand, at least part of the much richer bone industry was manufactured on the spot, as documented by the heaps of deer metacarpals in various phases of processing.
The most important components of the bone tools are the points with massive bases. With their relatively versatile shapes, numerous analogies can be found with various Central European assemblages. The most typical vari- ant is represented by the two elongated points with a pointed base and tip Nos. But in both cases, their cross-section is ex- traordinary thin. But thin triangular-shaped points are quite common amongst points with a split base. The large point No. Point No. Even their shape is somewhat unusual.