Manual Rubber Technologists Handbook

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The topics covered by this book have been selected to cover a wide range of interests, both in terms of products and applications. The chapters in this volume have been written by experts in their fields, so the information can be regarded as the most up to date and state of the art knowledge on a particular subject. Although there is some discussion of relevant theory in various sections of text, the emphasis in this volume has been to concentrate on the practicalities of bonding of rubbers, to themselves and substrates.

It is considered that this type of information is of immediate interest to the practising technologist dealing with shop floor problems on a daily basis. This book will be ideal for those who are just about to embark upon the practice of bonding rubbers but it will be equally useful to those practitioners already involved in this field. Handbook of Rubber Bonding. Bryan G. Rubber to Metal Bonding. Rubber to Metal and Other Substrate Bonding. Rubber to Rubber Bonding.

Introduction initiated by the teacher Development of discussion by giving lead points and follow up interactions Transaction stage in which the key points are reviewed by the teacher and Summarizing stage in which teacher provides additional support materials to ensure the achievement of the objectives. Group Discussion Group discussion is an ideal method to develop Co-operation, democratic attitude, friendliness and compromising attitude which are the ultimate aims of education. During group discussion the teacher may observe each group and it needed help them to Channel the discussion towards the common objectives.

All students may be given opportunity to take part and express their ideas within a time limit. The conculsion reached may be entered by each students. A group reprsentive ust present this during consolidation in which the teacher may correct or add informations to ensure that all the relevant ideas have been covered. Collection Collection is a continuous learning activity, which ensure complete participation of students. The Collected item may be materials, pictures, charts, ideas, data etc.

Collection provides direct experience to learn. An exhibition of collected materials will help to strengthen the concept. Practical works Experimentation contains the process skill in an integrated way. In the new approach of curriculum the student forms idea and comes to conclusion though process. The term Practical when associated with a science subject usually means an experiment. The objective of doing a experiment is to explore new ideas though investigation only. Its main purpose is to verify some principles associated with theory. The Subjects ends here.

But this is not the case with Vocational Practical The ultimate goal of a Vocational Education is to generate skill through continuous practice along with investigation and invention. Continuous practice transforms the unskilled. This is the significance and importance of practicals in the Vocational stream. Hence it is very crucial that Vocational teachers as well as instructor should understand the importance of vocational practical and act accordingly.

Quiz Quiz programmes can be used as an interesting class room tool for transaction of curriculum objectives as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of transaction and achievement of students. For conducting a quiz programme a topic should be selected based on the above objective The students are asked to prepare question based on the topic individually. A question is rised by a particular team and the other teams to answer them if they can answer the question they get points for that if all other teams fail to answer the question raised by the 1St team the 1st team answer the question and explain the background if necessary.

All the teams get equal number of chance to ask the question. Time limit is also prescribed for the conduction of the programme. The team who scores maximum points wins All the participants can make notes on the questions asked answer and their explanation which help them in learning. Models Models are used in learning process. It enhanced the leaning experience. This is based on the seeing is believing.

It helps the learner a chance to see feel the model presented. Still models and working models help the students to understand the structure , working principles, actual operation etc. Several steps are involved 1. Presentation y each group about A How the models were prepared B Details of - Expenses working and principles Finally Documentation of the process. Games Class rooms can be made attractive by introducing different types of games. Games should be interesting as well as informative some of suitable games are 1. Survey This strategy involves collection of data from the group under study book, person, materials etc.

It develop the social interaction and communication ability of the learner. It also provide a scope for discovery learning. Exhibition It is a learning strategy by which the learner can get a chance to show the skill developed. It provides the intrinsic motivation and exposure.

Silica-Filled Rubber Compounds (Silica Rubber Conmposites)

Exhibition item can be conducted either individually or as a group task. Necessary publicity and other arrangement can be provided. Presentation, documentation participation and innovative skills of the learner can be evaluated. Interview Interview is one of the important learning strategy taking the help of a resource person. Interview is an innerview.

It provide opinion and information about a topic. An interview is conducted by the following steps 1. How to introduce a problem? Invite a resource person Decide the questions by learners Decide the time, place etc. How to discuss How many students to participate Implementation of the interview Conclusion Facilitator. Items required 1. Interview Schedule List of question prepared by learners Selection of students, selected names sequence of question. Field Visit Field visit is an inevitable vocational tool to be implemented in vocational Higher Secondary Education. This helps the students to familarise with the modern technologies and new situation in a different atmosphere.

It provides learning though viewing. It is based on the principle that seeing is better than having. It enables the learning to retain the learned informations longer and to make the subject more interesting. Get prior permission from the authorities before conducting the field visit. Teacher may assign different duties to learners by working them different groups.

Each learner should take utmost care and interest during the visit. Each learner should submit a detailed repot about the field visit. Demonstration Process 1. Chart display It is also one of the important teaching aid. It can be used in every activities of a learning process.


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Chart display is a written or pictorial representation of idea or concept. It is abbreviate brief and clear. It is prepared by study. Benefits 1. A learner gets clear idea about the concept The leaner can retain the ideas in his mind for longer periods A complicated idea can be simplified though a chart Cheap method of teaching aid.

Audio Visual aids CD Rom, video clipping, slide projector, website, etc. The facilitator prepares the topic and present though audio-visual medium. Topics related to rubber technology are effectively communciated by 37 this way. Reference Referencing is an unavoidable learning method for technical subjects. Texts and books are very costly in the case of Rubber Technology and the availability ic also less. Hence group referencing is encouraged in this subject. Student gro ups refer the materials relevant to the topia and prepare write up.

These write ups are presented in the whole group and thus the sharing of ideas is resulted. The strategy develops the positive attitudes and skills of the learner. Since the participation of the larner is assured, their enthusiasm and communication skills with the manifolded. The validated write up are compiled in the students subject Diary. The list of reference books are given at the end of each urt which are only samples. The facilitator and students can search for further sources; Internet sites, cripamphelets, articular journals etc, can also be effectively used in referencing.

Processing Technology 1. Discussion and experiment and presented them as write up and record. Group discussion, Experiment and assignment and presented them as write up, record and assignment. Manufacture of later Products 2. The assignment work, chart and write ups are to be presented. The write-ups chart and seminar report is to be presented. And also presented them as write-ups and field visit report.

Non Tyre Rubber Products 3. Hose and cables and wires through assignment, discussion, reference, field visit and audio visual aids and presented them as write up, assignment and field visit report. Tyres 4. Also presented them as field visit report and write up. And presented as assignments and reference notes. UNIT V. Testing and Specification of Rubber 5. Preparation of dispersion, emulsion and solution 1. Latex Compounding 2. Latex products 3. Dry rubber compounding 5. Dry rubber products 7. To attain the skill to produce Hawaii sole and strap by blending synthetic rubber and NR through work practice.

Processing methods for manufacturing of products from dry rubber Blending and mastication Master batching Mixing and compounding, spreading, calendering, sheeting and Fabric coating extrusion, moulding, curing in auto clave, and hot air and hot water. Latex foam The two important processing methods for latex foam manufacture and important steps involved in the process.

Some typical compound formulation machinery mould and equipment required for foam products. Manufacture of latex cement and adhesives, latex paints and protective coatings, road rubberizing. History of tyre Industry is India Manufacture of tyres, cycle Tyres, cycle Tubes, automobile tubes tire treads, bead wire, carcass, and sidewall introduction to tire building. Bagomatic and auto form press cure finishing operations.

Principles of testing of elastomers, stress strain relations ship, of shear and compression flex resistance abrasion hardness testing swelling insolvents ageing tests. ISI standards for various rubber and rubber products. Compounding and work practice and production of non tyre rubber product using natural synthetic and reclaimed rubber and their blends foot wear tubing moulded goods tread rubber, hoses factory visits.

Rubber Technologist's Handbook, Volume 2

The learning process should be learner centred and activity oriented learning activities would help to develop process skills and multiple intelligence. The activities are conducted in the class room or outside and they are to be completed in a time bound manner. The teacher has to plan the activities necessary to ensure effectiveness learning. The plan must be structured as Year plan Unit plan Daily plan. Year plan As year plan has to be prepared in order to for seen the picture of the whole activities to be conducted in the academic year.

The annual plan is to be prepared by the teacher after examining the curriculum objectivities textbook, source book and other learning materials. This plan includes curriculum objectives, ideas to be transacted, process skills, learning materials required, the product is obtained, evaluation methods and periods required. A model of unit plan is given below. A model of daily plan is given below:. Learning Activity Feed Back Facilitator gives some hints about Majority got clear idea about the structure of hose and cables in structure of hose and cable.

Some the class. The students are then divided into Group leader Anantha Raman groups presented the explanation of the Students are allowed for groupwise questions raised after the group discussion with the help of reference discussion and referencing. All the groups shared the idea and Facilitator consolidated the structure prepared write up.

Sunitha asked about the different tyres of hoses and cables structures. The questions are discussed in small groups with the help of text books and referring points like carcass, cover, tube and their functions, cover, insulation, wire are given in groups. Evaluation has to play significant role in making the learning process more effective. It provides diverse experiences to the learners, keeping in view the skill to be attained continuously by them. As the curriculum is based on a particular vocation in the selected stream is the most important part and it should be evaluated accordingly.

Technical skills, interest and devotion in the field, communication skills, organizational and presentation skills are to be evaluated. Evaluation of the personal and social qualities also should be done. So the evaluation should be continuous and comprehensive. Terminal or Term End Evaluation TE It is the written form of evaluation aimed at evaluating the facts, concepts and ideas gained by the learner.

The test should not be aimed to evaluate the memory alone. Questions are framed in such a way that the learners are able to apply different mental process while answering. The Terminal Evaluation questions give more emphasis on application, analysis and synthesis level. The questions should be formulated taking into consideration the time required to read, think, understands and write answers.

These aspects should be considered while fixing the scores also. To avoid blind guessing, multiple choice and application level questions may be mixed. The total number of questions may vary from time to time. All the questions should be based on the curricular objectives. Open ended questions but the choice questions also should be based on the same curricular objectives.

Continuous and comprehensive evaluation CCE Our traditional evaluation method measures only the memory and recollection capacity of the learner. So it is better to evaluate the learner in a continuous and comprehensive manner. CCE helps the learner to understand and develop adequate his own progress and to develop adequate strategies for further improvement.

Assess the all round development of the learner on a continuous basis through a variety of activities. Effective feed back is possible Remedial diagnostic teaching is possible Process as well as products are assessed. Study project Case study Field study. For eg: Seminar Panel discussion Debate Group discussion. For eg: Assignment Collections From the above five group of activities, the teacher has the freedom to choose any four areas for evaluation purpose. Criteria Relevatice of the study Identification of problem Ability to select appropriate tools, ability to select suitable bearing method.

Ability to collect sufficient and relevant data. Ability to classify and arrange data for analysis. Reliability and authenticity of the data collected. Ability to analyses the data Systematic arrangements. Ability to draw inferences based on analysis. Ability to give suggestions based on inference. Ability to present in logical and sequential order, authenticity of report, time bound comparison. Knowledge of content and process. Ability to analyze data. Ability to justify inference. Ability to explain. Strategies and methods adopted. Practical Evaluation PE The goal of vocational Education is to generate skills through continuous practices along with investigation and innovations.

Continues and comprehensive practice transforms the unskilled learner to a skilled one. This is the importance and significance of vocational practicals. Practical Examination is conducted for a batch of 8 learners having 6 hours duration. Practical evaluation should be done taking into account the whole practicals included in the curriculum since Learning of practical skills is a continuous process through out the period of study.

E The following general indication are identified for P. PE should be done before the end of each term. Vocational Competency Evaluation VCE Vocational Competency Evaluation is to evaluate the vocational skill and aptitude developed by the students during the learning process. This is a system to judiciously evaluate the required value addition and consequent capacity building in the concerned vocational curriculum. The vocational education is aimed at developing interest, skills and devotion in specific vocational fields.

As other evaluation components like CE. PE and TE cannot assess the vocational ampetences and professional skills, acquired by the students an internship evaluation IE components has been introduced to meet this requirement. Internship evaluation should be done based on the following components like regularity and punctuality, value addition and capacity building. Regularity and punctuality has vital role in vocational education learning continuous process, the regular presence of the Learner is must for attaining maximum efficency.

Value Addition. Value addition is the qualitative measure of the learners interest, devotion perseverance and efficiency. Capacity Building. It gives a quantitative measure of the students skill in graded area exposure. Capacity building can be evaluated through conducting the following activities. These components help the learner to practice the acquired skills in the real situation and thereby increasing self-confidence and promoting self reliance. Vocational Competency Evaluation Indicators No 1. It is evaluated by using 5 point grading system. Field visit 1. Attitude and readiness towards the task 2.

Capacity for observation 3.

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Data collection 4. Application of ideas 5. Planning 2. Data collection 3. Consolidation of data and analysis 4. Drawing inference 5. Time bound action 4. Capacity for observation, analysis and innovation 5. Ability for planning and organizing 2. Mastery of subject 3. Ability for communication 4. Innovation 5. Mastery of vocational skills 2.

Managerial capacity 3. Promoting self confidence 4. Innovation approach 5. Promoting self reliance. If a student fails to attain the minimum required score for TE and secure minimum score for pass in TE, he need not reappear for practical examination and vice versa. The componenets other than regularity and punctuality can be improved before the end of the academic year for those who fail to attain this minimum. Chances will be given for improvement of the TE, PE and VCE for those who fail to attain the minimum even after formal completion of the course.

Course certificate will be issued to those students who have successfully completed part I and II. A learner is eligible for higher studies provided he secures minimum score in all subjects including part III. Grading Indicators: 1. Terminal Evluation TE Terminal evaluation should be in written form. The intention of the test must not be confined to memory test alone. It is an important text for evaluating the facts, concepts and ideas general by the learner. While preparing, questions for the terminal evaluation, more emphasis should be given to the level of application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation then knowledge and understanding.

Establish cause effect relationships. Guidelines for the preperation of question paper. Questions should be prepared based on the curriculam objectives. Prime consideration should be given to the curriculam objectives which lead to the learned to diverse thinking process. Along with this, ideas related to the intent should also be taken into consideration.

More than ore curriculam objectives can be combined if necessary. Questions which test only the memory of the learner should be avoided. Priority should be given to analysis, synthesis and evluation type questions. Different learning levels should be considered in making questions. That is all questions should him at all levels of learners. Even in questions of higher mental process there should be a chance for below average students to make an attempt.

Questions should be familier and challenging in connection with the situations. To avoid blind flexing, multiple choice and supply type questions may be mixed.

Questions should be clear and legitimate. Skills which are evaluated is a part of CE may be given less importance. Drawing and picture which develop various components of mental process may be included in the question. Questions which demand neat labeled diagram should be avoided. Arrangement of questions can be done in the order of scores. No fixed number and pattern of questions necessary. Questions may be modeled so as to raise the curiosity in the recent scientific development. Questions may be moulded so as to promote interest and positive attitude towards technology.

Questions may be able to help the learners to face challenges in future and to equip themselves to appear competitive examinations. Stress should be given to apply the innovative thinking mental abilities of pupil. Life related questions should be included. Supporting System In learner centered vocational education, a learning methodology has to be organized and a proper learning atmosphere is to be provided. Many organizations can support the learning activity.

They are This will helps to share the knowledge and practical facilities, production and marketing of materials, service etc. Monitoring system Education is a kind of journey from darkness to light satisfying the needs and the wants of the individual and the society. The modernization of education through activity oriented system enhances free thinking and working in a fearless atmosphere. It is a qualitative process not a quantitative one this necessitates a proper monitoring system.

The system of monitoring should have the following features. It must be transparent It must enrich the ideas of the facilitator through innovative process It must be time bound and rational It must motive the facilitator to adopt new strategies It must be recordable and ensure effective feedback for the effective monitoring of the system, three levels of the mechanism should be setup. School level monitoring group Regional level monitoring group State level monitoring group Moreover a social auditing system is advisable to attain the objective effectively.

Features of learning process in the new system of education In the new system of education the learning process should be modified in such a way as to enable the learner to construct the knowledge of his own through observation, co-operation, problem solving, social interaction etc.

The learning process should consider the nature ability, social setup, inborn talents and subject selected by the learner. Therefore the learning process should be, A continuous mental process Simple learner must feel that he is able to undertake the task Enable the learner to attain the curriculum objective Interesting Suitable to the age and attitude of the learner. Future possibilities Enable group activity Challenging Time bound Constructive and curiosity developing Possibilities for evaluation Capacity to generate independent thinking Ability to enquire discover and establish cause effect relationship between phenomena.

Introduction Those unfamiliar with the nuts and bolts aspects of the industry may all too readily attribute artistic practice to the exotic process techniques involved in manufacturing of rubber articles. Raw rubber is of little use and application unless it is processed. The goal of rubber processing is to provide useful properties and suitable processability with as Hugh a level of consistency as possible.

In this unit we deals with high techniques like mastication, blending, compound preparation and manufacturing techniques like processing spreading calendering , extrusion and molding. The vaster and inevitability of rubber products may be convinced by the systematic study of processing techniques of products ranging form tiny balloons to huge tire. The art of compounding consists of specifying the type and amount of the various ingredients in a mixture, the manner of many process of the finishes mix and the method of vulcanization based on the requirement of end product. Curriculum Objectives.

To get a clear picture about mastication and blending of raw natural rubber through discussion and experiment and presented as write up and record. To get a clear picture about master batching, mixing and compounding of rubber through general discussions, experiment and chart display and presented as writ up and record. To attain a clear idea about different processing method like spreading, calendaring, sheeting and fabric coating through seminar, reference and IT show and present them as seminar report and write up.

To acquire the concepts of different moulding techniques and curing methods through group discussion, experiment and assignment and present them as write ups, record and assignment. Syllabus Processing methods for manufacture of products from dry rubber Blending and mastication master batching mixing and compounding, spreading, calendering, sheeting and fabric coating extrusion moulding, curing in autoclave, and hot air and hot water 1.

Discussion Facilitator gives to students some raw rubber and masticated rubber samples and ask them to compare and classify the properties. Students should discuss and clarify similarities, differences and causes. From the above data students prepare a write up. Facilitator summaries the write up and it is evaluated. Viscosity reduction Chain scission Peptizing. Product Write up. Activity 1. Experiment Students are divided into two groups and allow the first group to do the softening process by passing rubber sheet through two-roll mill in the school laboratory. Thus the students get a clear idea about mastication process.

The second group is also allowed to do the same procedure but add a peptizer and observe the speed of softening. Product Record 1. The facilitator brings the attention of the learners to the topic of mixing and compounding by raising following questions and lead points. What is a rubber mix?

How it differs from raw rubber? How mix is prepared? What are the factors, which influence the compound design? The classification of rubber chemicals. Active participation of the students should be assured. Students make their opinions and actively take part in the discussion. The facilitator summaries the discussion points. Students are asked to prepare a write up Facilitator evaluates the write up. Consolidation Mixing Rubber compound Principle of compounding Classification of rubber chemical Compound design Compounding for specific properties viz Oil resistance, heat resistance, weather resistance, Fire resistance.

Typical formulation. Product Write up Activity 1. Experiment The facilitator divide the students as two or three groups. According to the formulation given the students take the weight of the rubber chemical and label them. Rubber chemicals are added under the guidance of the facilitator. Facilitators evaluates the record Consolidation. Steps of compounding Precautions to be taken during mixing Product Record Activity 1. Chart display A chart is shown to the students and are asked to observe and amylase data and make a write up so as to reach a conclusion regarding points,.

Similarities and dissimilarities of master batch and Final batch Advantages and disadvantages of masters batch A chart relating the topic master batch and final batch is shown below. Students should prepare a write up and classification table Facilitator evaluates the write up and tables. Consolidation Master batch Final batch Scorching Advantages and disadvantages.

Mixing time for master batch and final batch. Product Write up Classification labels. By referring these books the students are asked to prepare write up and schematic diagrams regarding the processing method skim coating, frictioning, spreading and sheeting. The write up is evaluated by the facilitator. Students are asked to prepare flow charts Facilitator evaluateds the flow chart Consolidation Doctor blade Extraction unit Winding mechanism Topping Sheeting Frictioning Profile calendering Product Flow chart.

Students clarify doubts raised by other students. Timely interventions of facilitator is desirable. The students are asked to prepare a flow chart and write up. The facilitator evaluates the chart and writes up consolidation. In the next class the above students should be the panel experts convey their ideas one by one. The doubts and questions relating each topic are clarified by the concerned experts.

Further clarification and summarization of the panel discussion points are done by the facilitator. Students prepare write-up Facilitator evaluates the write up. Group discussion Lead points Compression molding Transfer molding Injection molding Comparison between them Group wise discussion is carried out. Each group prepares write-ups, charts and diagrams and group leaders presented them to the whole class.

Timely intervensions of the facilitator is advisable. The points and ideas were consolidated and shared to the whole group. Facilitator evaluates the write-ups, diagrams and charts. A gum stock is prepared as per the given formulation. Apply mould release agent to the Preheated mould Fill with the compound and cured in the press Students get a clear idea of compression moulding technique through this experiment.

Facilitator evaluates the active participation and record of the students. Assignment Students are asked to prepare an assignment on curing methods. Advise to refer the following books 1. Introduction to Rubber Technology by Maurice morten 2. M Blow. Facilitator scrutinises the content and a valuates assignment.

E Questions 1. Conduct a seminar on spreading. Prepare a write up about molding techniques based on group discussion held in your class. When you visited a rubber factory you saw that rubber was passing through the open roll mill before the addition of chemicals for a few minutes. Why it is done? Draw your inference. NR Zno 2 2. Produce tea mat from above formulation. Will you get the finished product? If not why? Give remedies. Introduction Like solid rubber, latex also finals, many applications, principle among them being foam products, fabric binder, latex adhesive, dipped goods or those obtained by moulding and casting.

For obtain any of these products a whole range of compounding and processing technique have been developed. A number of value added products can be manufactured from NR latex by simple manufacturing techniques which is much relevant in the industrialisation of kerala. Latex industry cause less health hazard compared to other industries This unit includes typical formulation of dipped goods, their manufacture and also other processing techniques. This unit also covers different equipments and machines used in latex industries. The scope is to equip students to gather more knowledge about latex industries and this in turn will boost up their self reliance.

To acquire idea about equipments and machinery used for manufacture of dipped goods through seminar, discussion and experiment, and presented them as seminar report and write ups. To attain idea about compounding of latex for manufacture of various types of dipped goods and typical dipping compound formulation through chart, project, specimen collection and experiments.

The project reports, write up and collected specimens are presented. Manufacture of latex cements and adhesives, latex paints and protection coating, road, rubberizing. To acquire idea on manufacture of important dipped goods like gloves, balloons, rubber bands through experiment, Flow chart and assignment. To attain more idea in manufacture of latex cements and adhesives, latex paints and protective coatings, road rubberising through assignment, experiment, discussion and debate.

And also present assignment, write ups and discussion notes. Syllabus 45 hours Dipping compounding of latex for manufacture of various types of dipped goods typical dipping compound formulations manufacture of important dipped gods like gloves, balloons, rubber bands, condoms equipments and machinery used for manufacture of dipped goods. Latex casting Solid articles by latex costing rubber threads. Latex foam Two important processing methods for latex foam manufacture and important steps involved in the process.

Some typical compound formulations-machinery, moulds and equipments required for foam products. Manufacture of latex cements and adhesives, latex paints and protective coatings, road rubberising 2. The students are divided in to two groups Group 1. Group leader present the discussion notes and the facilitator validate the same. Activity 2. Students prepare a write up containing the features of the stirrer The write-ups are presented in the class and the facilitator validates the same.

Dry weight Wet weight Dispersions - particle size reduction, dispersing agent Emulsions emulsifier Stirrer Cloud test Cracking of emulsions. Product Observation chart Write ups Test results. The students are asked to prepare seminar on Factors attesting the effecting of Ball Milling through reference. Students conduct seminar and present the report.

Facilitator validates the seminar report. Students observe the chart containing a typical formulation prepared by facilitator. In accordance with the first year portion Compounding Ingredients. Students prepare a chart containing the fractions and dosage of chemicals for latex compounding. The facilitator supplements the points and the students prepare notes on principle of compouding. Students prepare typical formulation of different latex goods.


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  7. Consolidation Typical formulation Latex compounding Wet weight formula Functions and dosage of chemicals. Product Chart Discussion notes Sample formulations.

    Rubber Technologist’s Handbook, Volume 2 | Dr. Gupta Verlags GmbH

    Students are asked to collect the different latex products. Facilitator supplements the data. Product Specimen Display Classification chart Activity 2. Facilitator provides the general formulations and hints about latex compounding. Students groups are asked to prepare compounds for different latex product. Students make latex compounds and project report is prepared. The Facilitator evaluates the project report. Consolidation Compounding of latex for different latex products. Product Project report Latex compounds. Students are allowed for a dipping practice in the school laboratory The steps in dipping process are demonstrated by the facilitator.

    The steps are recorded as a write up. A table of coacervants is prepared. The facilitator validates the flow chart and table. Facilitator gives some of idea about heat sensitized dipping Students are asked to prepare a flow chart of dipping process. Facilitator checks the correctness of the chart.

    Rubber technologists handbook

    Students are asked to prepare a write up on heat sensitized dipping through reference. The reference write up is verified by the facilitator Consolidation. Heat sensitized dipping Heat Deposit relation. Product Write up Reference:- High polymer lattices by D. Blackly Vol. III 2. Facilitator gives a brief disruption on latex casting process. Students are asked to conduct a seminar on latex easting Ref. Rubber Technology and manufacture by Steven Blow. The facilitator valuate seminar report. Facilitator gives some points about the manufacturing process of latex thread. Students prepare a labeled diagram me of latex thread manufacturing process by referring Rub.

    The facilitator verifies diagram. Consolidation Different steps of manufacture Nozzle, spinneret Student are asked to prepare an assignment on latex thread manufacture by referring. The facilitator values the assignment. Necessary permission is obtained from the factory. Students visit a foam-manufacturing unit. Students clarify their doubts by acting with factory personnels Students prepare visit report. The report is scrutinized by the facilitator. Common defects in latex foam. Product Factory visit report Activity 2. Typical formulation for latex foam is given by the facilitator.

    Facilitator evaluates the chart Consolidation Formulation for foam Latex compounding Froathing. Students are divided into two groups. One group discuss about Dunlop process. Second group discuss about Thalalay process. Each group prepare a write up about foam manufacture and group leaders present it commonly.

    Students summaries their experiences as experiment record. Facilitator evaluates the record. Consolidation Formulation of latex covert Formulation of latex adhesive Methods for improving the adhesive properties of latex Product Experiment record Activity 2.

    The facilitator evaluates the write-ups. Students prepare and submit an assignment about the protective coatings Of latex based paints. Product Assignment Activity 2. Facilitator open up a general discussion about Road rubberisation Students are divided into two groups and a date is fixed for a debate The advantages and dis advantages of Road rubberisation.

    Debate is conducted. A moderator must be elected by the students before the starting Timely interventions of the moderator is desirable Main points are recorded by the students. The recordings are refined and enriched with some sample formulations and a report on Road Rubberisation is prepared by each. The report is validated by the facilitator. Consolidation The feasibility of Road Rubberisation The ecological aspects of road Rubberisation Sample formulations Road rubberisation techniques. C E Questions 1 Illustrate the properties, advantages and applications of latex cement, adhesive and Paint 2 Prepare an assignment on latex thread with its working and a labeled neat diagram.

    T E Questions 1 One of your friends has a glove factory. The gloves made by him is having defects Like pin holes and sticking.

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    You have to suggest some remedies for this. Introduction A number of rubber articles are made in modern life, which increase the comfort and safety of modern living. Though these articles are large in number, their manufacturing process are much similar and common.

    This unit aims to familiarize the compounding and manufacturing methods of various non tyre rubber products. This unit includes molded goods, hoses, cables, rubber to metal bonding etc. Rubber can be bonded to metal parts, fabrics like rayon, nylon etc to produce variety goods. These goods find application in electrical, mechanical, construction etc.

    For example, to protect buildings form earthquakes we input dampers and to get smooth drive shock absorbers are used in vehicles. Syllabus 40 Hrs Compounding and manufacturing methods rubber footwear, conveyor and transmission Compounding of beltings. Facilitator evaluates the product belt compound Whether the student builds up capacity.

    Students are divided into groups Assign work to each group V-Belt manufacturing process Conclude the field visits Report. Demonstrate the production of conveyor belt, passenger belt and transmission belt Issue print out. Consolidation Production process of conveyor belt Production process of passenger belt Production process of Transmission belt Belt slagging.

    The facilitator provides the details of reference sources The students prepare write ups about curing methods or beltings The write ups scrutinized by the facilitator 3. Students are divided into small groups Give them the topic and points to be noted about structure of hoses and cables. The facilitator provides the details of reference sources. Facilitator gives the hints about the points to be noted during visit.

    Consolidation Manufacturing process of cable. Duel extrusion, Batch cure continuous vulcanisation. Students are asked to prepare as assignment regarding rubber to metal bonding. The assignment should contain different types of rubber to metal bonding process. The assignments are scrutinised by the facilitator. Consolidation Different types of rubber to metal bonding process. Students are divided into small groups Give them topics and points to be noted, about rubber covered rolls and rubber lining of chemical plants. Students prepare a write up about shock absorbers and anti vibration mounting The write-ups are scrutinized by the facilitator.

    Consolidation Idea about shock absorbers. Idea about vibration mountings. Prepare an assignment report A rubber to metal bonding. Sample TE Question Mr. Akash decided to start a Door mat production unit suggests the suitable procedure for the Door mat production. Introduction Early tyre development took place mainly in Great Britain. Hancock made rubber tyres. The first in flated tyre which commercially successful was invented by J.

    B Drnlop. The first successful cord type tyre a bicycle tyre was invented in the USA by J. Automobile industry cannot exist without tyres. Tyres range from animal drives tyres to aeroplane tyres. In this modern era, radial tyres and tubles tyres find greater application. This unit includes parts of tyres, tyre building, curing, after treatment, testing and also manufacturing of cycle tyres and tube. More emphasis is given to factory visit so as to get exposure to tyre industry.

    From this unit students get opening to various tyre industries. Also they get more awareness about tyre retreading. To familiarize the history of tyre industry and components of tyre through reference, chart display and group discussions, and present it as write ups. To acquire idea about tyre manufacturing through chart display, group discussion, factory visit and reference.

    Also present factory visit report and write ups. To acquire idea about cycle tyres, Cycle tubes and automobile tubes through groups discussions, assignments and factory visit, and present it as visit report and write ups. To attain idea about finishing operations through assignment, and present it as assignment report.

    Syllabus 25 Hours History of tyres industry in India Manufacture of tyres, cycle tyres, cycle tubes automobile tuber tyre treads, bead wire, caress, side wall, introduction to tyre building, tyre curing, Bagomate and auto form press cure finishing operations. Activity 4. Some point lints about the topic is given by the facilitator Students are asked to prepare a write Up about the history of tyre industries.

    The write ups are scrutinized by the facilitator. Consolidation History of tyre. History of tyre industries Product Write up describing the history of tyre and tyre industry. Various charts describing the tyre components are displayed. Students are asked to list the components. The data is summarized with the help of facilitator. Components Function 1. Chafer 5. The students are divided into groups Each group discusses the write ups See Activity 4. The functions of tyre components are identified through discussions and prepared write Ups. Consolidation History of tyre industries is India Functions of tyre components.

    Product Write ups Data list 4. Brief idea and some points on tyre is given by facilitator. Students interact with factory personnel. Students prepare write-ups at the spot itself. Facilitator evaluates the write-ups and asks to prepare visit report. Chart Preparation. Students are asked to prepare chart on tyre, from tyre building to dispatch through reference books and hand outs.