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Tissue Repair, Contraction and the Myofibroblast (Biotechnology Intelligence Unit)
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Considerable effort has been devoted to understanding the physical relationships governing wound healing and subsequent scarring, with mathematical models and simulations developed to elucidate these relationships. The alignment of collagen describes the degree of scarring; basket-weave orientation of collagen is characteristic of normal skin, whereas aligned collagen fibers lead to significant scarring.
The growth of tissue can be simulated using the aforementioned relationships from a biochemical and biomechanical point of view. The biologically active chemicals that play an important role in wound healing are modeled with Fickian diffusion to generate concentration profiles. The balance equation for open systems when modeling wound healing incorporates mass growth due to cell migration and proliferation.
Here the following equation is used:.
Successful wound healing is dependent on various cell types, molecular mediators and structural elements. Primary intention is the healing of a clean wound without tissue loss.
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Wound closure is performed with sutures stitches , staples, or adhesive tape or glue. Primary intention can only be implemented when the wound is precise and there is minimal disruption to the local tissue and the epithelial basement membrane, e. This process is faster than healing by secondary intention. If the wound edges are not reapproximated immediately, delayed primary wound healing transpires. This type of healing may be desired in the case of contaminated wounds. By the fourth day, phagocytosis of contaminated tissues is well underway, and the processes of epithelization, collagen deposition, and maturation are occurring.
Foreign materials are walled off by macrophages that may metamorphose into epithelioid cells, which are encircled by mononuclear leukocytes, forming granulomas. Usually the wound is closed surgically at this juncture, and if the "cleansing" of the wound is incomplete, chronic inflammation can ensue, resulting in prominent scarring.
Following are the main growth factors involved in wound healing:. Other complications can include Infection and Marjolin's ulcer. Advancements in the clinical understanding of wounds and their pathophysiology have commanded significant biomedical innovations in the treatment of acute, chronic, and other types of wounds.
Many biologics, skin substitutes, biomembranes and scaffolds have been developed to facilitate wound healing through various mechanisms. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Hand abrasion Approximate days since injury 0 3 17 30 Wound healing is a complex process in which the skin, and the tissues under it, repair themselves after injury. Main article: Coagulation.
Further information: Angiogenesis. Collective cell migration Dressing medical History of wound care Regeneration in humans Wound bed preparation Wound licking Scar free healing. Biomaterials for Treating Skin Loss. Orgill DP, Blanco C editors. Cell Biochemistry and Function.
Tissue Repair, Contraction And The Myofibroblast (Biotechnology Intelligence Unit)
American Journal of Surgery. Price, P. Cellular, molecular and biochemical differences in the pathophysiology of healing between acute wounds, chronic wounds and wounds in the elderly. European Heart Journal Supplements. Physiological Reviews. February PLoS Biology. Scarless Wound Healing. New York Marcel Dekker, Inc. Electronic book. Retrieved 31 January Archived from the original on 25 April Retrieved 16 March Wound Healing, Growth Factors. Accessed January 20, Mechanisms of Ageing and Development. The care of wounds: A guide for nurses. Oxford; Malden, Mass. Blackwell Science.
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Wound healing: Chronic wounds. Trends in Cell Biology. Experimental Cell Research. Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine. Cambridge University Press. Archived from the original PDF on 8 March Journal of Postgraduate Medicine. Macrophages are present essentially in all tissues, beginning with embryonic development and, in addition to their role in host defense and in the clearance of apoptotic cells, are being increasingly recognized for their trophic function and role in regeneration. Retrieved 20 January July Bibcode : Sci Dispensable but not irrelevant".
In Norton JA ed. New York, NY: Springer. Archived from the original PDF on 24 August European Journal of Cell Biology.
Researchers have identified a cell that aids limb regrowth in Salamanders. Macrophages are a type of repairing cell that devour dead cells and pathogens, and trigger other immune cells to respond to pathogens. University of Texas. Bibcode : PNAS.. Wound Healing. Chemical Peels. Accessed September 15, Wound Healing, Skin. Accessed December 27, International Journal of Experimental Pathology. Wound Repair and Regeneration.
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. The cellular, biochemical, and mechanical phases of wound healing. Schwartz's Principles of Surgery, Ninth Edition. McGraw-Hill Professional. Wound Healing: Methods and Protocols. Methods in Molecular Medicine. Totowa, N. Chinese Medical Journal. Retrieved 13 July When the dermis is destroyed, the scars do not regrow hair, nerves or sweat glands, providing additional challenges to body temperature control. Archives of Oral Biology. Chapter 7: Cutaneous trauma and its treatment. Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army. Virtual Naval Hospital Project.
Accessed through web archive on September 15, In, Heino, J. Cell Invasion. Medical Intelligence Unit; Georgetown, Tex. Current Applied Physics. Bibcode : CAP Cellular Signalling. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. The Journal of Cell Biology.
Tissue Repair, Contraction And The Myofibroblast (Biotechnology Intelligence Unit)
Journal of Dermatological Science. Mechanism of wound healing. In: Wound Care. Tutorial Medical Series. Stuttgart: Hippokrates Verlag, Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Home Healthcare Nurse. Johns Hopkins Medicine. Retrieved 2 October The Journal of Clinical Investigation.
Journal of Dental Research. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. BMC Cell Biology. World Journal of Surgery. The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Retrieved The new tissue is not the same as the tissue that was lost. After the repair process has been completed, there is a loss in the structure or function of the injured tissue. In this type of repair, it is common that granulation tissue stromal connective tissue proliferates to fill the defect created by the necrotic cells.
The necrotic cells are then replaced by scar tissue. After the repair process has been completed, the structure and function of the injured tissue are completely normal. This type of regeneration is common in physiological situations. Examples of physiological regeneration are the continual replacement of cells of the skin and repair of the endometrium after menstruation. Complete regeneration can occur in pathological situations in tissues that have good regenerative capacity. Bibcode : PNAS The British Journal of Dermatology. Annales Pharmaceutiques Francaises in French. Retrieved 3 July Drug-induced regeneration in adult mice.
Sci Transl Med. Spiritual tattoo: a cultural history of tattooing, piercing, scarification, branding, and implants, Frog Ltd. The molecular and cellular biology of wound repair, Springer Us. Symposium Proceedings. Journal of Anatomy. Christchurch, New Zealand: Star. Page 4. Page 1. Reading Eagle.
Page 6. Journal of the Royal Society, Interface. Bibcode : Natur. Annals of Surgery. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. The Journal of Physiology. The Journal of International Medical Research. Surgery Oxford. Wound Management. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Robbins Basic Pathology 8th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders. Biomaterials Science. Surgical pathology Cytopathology Autopsy Molecular pathology Forensic pathology Oral and maxillofacial pathology Gross examination Histopathology Immunohistochemistry Electron microscopy Immunofluorescence Fluorescence in situ hybridization.
Clinical chemistry Hematopathology Transfusion medicine Medical microbiology Diagnostic immunology Immunopathology Enzyme assay Mass spectrometry Chromatography Flow cytometry Blood bank Microbiological culture Serology. Wound healing. Angiogenesis Intussusception Vasculogenesis. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage Focused assessment with sonography for trauma. Advanced trauma life support Trauma surgery Trauma center Trauma team Damage control surgery Early appropriate care. Resuscitative thoracotomy. Abdominal trauma Chest trauma Facial trauma Head injury Spinal cord injury.